Hippokratia 2007;11(1): 39-43
G Selim, O Stojceva-Taneva, N Ivanovski, K Zafirovska, A Sikole, L Trajcevska, A Asani, M Polenakovic
Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, F.Y.R.O.M.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death among hemodialysis (HD) patients, yet the risk factors for these events have not been well established. Our study objective was to determine predictors of cardiovascular mortality, considering the non-traditional disease-related and treatment-related cardiovascular risk factor in HD patients.
Material and Methods: Disease-related cardiovascular risk factors, such as anaemia, calcium-phosphate disorders, nutrition-inflammation and treatment / dialysis-related cardiovascular risk factors such as HD dose, using the index Kt/V were analyzed in 214 patients on HD. Mortality was monitored prospectively over a two year period.
Results: Fifty-three of the 214 HD patients died during the follow up period and the main cause of death was cardiovascular events (56.6%), followed by infection / sepsis (26.4%). The patients who died were significantly older than those alive, had significantly lower serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb), albumin and Kt/V. Serum levels of calcium, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen were significantly higher in patients who died during the follow up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the all cause and cardiovascular mortality was considerably higher in patients with Hb less than 110 g/l, albumin less than 40 g/l, CRP more than 8 mg/l and spKt / V less than 1.2 (log rank, p=0.000 / p=0.000, p=0.000 / p=0.001, p=0.000 / p=0.000, p=0.000 / p=0.000), respectively. No difference in cardiovascular mortality was observed between the fibrinogen less than 4 g/l and more than 4 g/l levels. High CRP, low Hb levels and low spKt/V were significant predictors of all-cause mortality, but low albumin and high fibrinogen levels were not in the Cox proportional hazards analysis. When only cardiovascular mortality was entered into the Cox model, high CRP and low Hb levels were the only significant predictors for mortality.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that, inflammation (elevated CRP) and anaemia (decreased Hb), were identified as significant independent non-traditional, disease-related cardiovascular risk factors that predict cardiovascular mortality in HD patients.
Keywords: cardiovascular mortality,non-traditional cardiovascular risk factor, hemodyalisis, CRP