Hippokratia 2007; 11 (2): 72-76
O Stojceva-Taneva, G Selim, L Stojkovski, N Ivanovski
Dpt of Nephrology, University Clinical Center, Skopje, F.Y.R.O.M.
Background: Hypertension is associated with more rapid progression of chronic kidney disease. Several studies have shown that treating hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease and proteinuria may attenuate the decline in glomerular filtration rate.
Study objective: The study evaluates the prevalence of hypertension and its association with chronic kidney disease progression in patients without and with diabetic nephropathy.
Methods: Patients with CKD stage 2-4 were followed up by a nephrologist for 12-52 months. A total of 137 patients were included in the study, 70 with non-diabetic CKD and 67 with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Demographic and clinical parameters were recorded at initiation and during follow-up. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by the Cockroft-Gault formula and progression of CKD by the slope of the estimated GFR decline .
Results: Out of 70 patients in the non-diabetic group, 34 were males, (mean age 50.37±12.2 years). Out of 67 diabetic patients, 30 were (males, mean age 57.8±8.4 years). 77% in the non-diabetic group had SBP above 140 mmHg. The higher SBP was associated with older age, (53.16±10.8 vs 40.9±12.2 years, p<0.0001). Diastolic blood pressure above 90 was present in 73%. Pulse pressure above 80 had 5.7% and was associated with older age (p<0.02). Progression of chronic kidney disease correlated inversely with age, and positively with diastolic blood pressure and proteinuria (p=0.005, p=0.019 and p=0.02 respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed that only younger age and higher proteinuria were predictive for chronic kidney disease progression (p=0.00002). 6% of pts in the diabetic group had SBP below 140, 19% between 140 and 160, and 75% above 160 mmHg. Diastolic blood pressure below 80 had only 6% of patients, between 80 and 90 had 37% and above 90 mmHg had 57%. Pulse pressure below 80 mmHg had 55% and it was correlated positively with age, p=0.009. Progression of chronic kidney disease in the diabetic group correlated positively with mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and proteinuria, (p=0.017, 0.036 and 0.000000 respectively) and inversely with age (p=0.0003). Multiple regression analysis showed that proteinuria, age and SBP were the only predictors for chronic kidney disease progression in diabetics.
Conclusion: Isolated systolic hypertension predominates the older age groups, proteinuria and age significantly correlate with GFR decline in both groups, and SBP is associated with more rapid progression of CKD in the diabetic patients.
Keywords: hypertension, chronic kidney disease progression, age, proteinuria