CASE REPORT

Hippokratia 2013, 17(3):268-270

Karabel M1, Yolbaş I1, Kelekçi S1, Şen V1, Haspolat YK2, Timuroğlu L1
1
Pediatric Department, 2Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Department,Medicine Faculty, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey

Abstract

Background and Aim: Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) was first described by Patau et al in 1960. It is characterized by serious head, facial, and extremity anomalies, congenital heart defects, and mental abnormalities. The incidence rate of Trisomy 13 is 1/10.000 live births. Accompanying symptoms and findings vary in rate and severity among the cases. Tetralogy of Fallot and metopic synostosis are very rare abnormalities in patients with Trisomy 13. In this study, we aimed to present a newborn girl with trisomy 13 who had multiple congenital malformations accompanied by tetralogy of Fallot and metopic synostosis.

Description of the case: The patient was delivered at 40 weeks of gestation, and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit due to respiratory distress and physical abnormalities. The newborn examination revealed multiple dysmorphic features. She had boot-shaped appearance on the chest radiograph. Chromosome analysis demonstrated mosaic trisomy 13.

Conclusion: Patients with trisomy 13 may have different type of gene variations and malformations; however, the most common type of gene variation is classic trisomy 47, XX +13, and the most common malformations are facial anomalies and congenital heart defects. In addition, tetralogy of Fallot and metopic synostosis may accompany trisomy 13.

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Key words: Trisomy 13, tetralogy of Fallot, metopic synostosis

Corresponding author:  Assist Prof. Müsemma Karabel, MD, Pediatric Department, Medicine Faculty, Dicle University,
21280-Kıtılbil, Diyarbakır, Turkey, tel: +904122488001 (ext: 4567), fax: +904122488440,
e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Introduction

Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) was first described by Patau in 19601. Its incidence is 1/10,000 live birth, usually resulting in spontaneous abortion. Abortion may occur in early gestation period or be delayed until the 20th week of gestation. There may also be early birth2.

The most frequent clinical features involve the central nervous system (mainly holoprocencephaly, microcephaly, severe psychomotor delay), ocular system (microphtalmia/anophthalmia), cardiovascular system (mainly septal defects or patent ductus arteriosus), and urogenital system (cystic kidneys, cryptorchidism). The majority of infants have orofacial clefts and postaxial polydactyly of the hands or feet3. Most of the patients with Patau syndrome have trisomic chromosome (47, XX+13), and most die within the first year of age.

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common type of cyanotic congenital heart disease, and consists of a right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, an overriding aorta, a malaligned ventricular septal defect, and right ventricular hypertrophy. It can have the classic boot-shaped appearance on chest radiograph, and it is very common in the patients with chromosomal abnormalities. TOF and metopic synostosis are rare malformations in Trisomy 13. In this study, we aimed to present a mature newborn girl with trisomy 13 who had TOF, metopic synostosis, and multiple congenital anomalies.

Case report

The patient was delivered at 40 weeks of gestation by normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. She was the eighth child born to non-consanguineous marriage from a healthy 42-year-old mother and 45-year-old father. Her sisters and brothers were normal and the family history was unremarkable. The birth weight of the patient was 2,460 gr (3rd - 5th percentile), length was 48 cm (10th - 25th percentile), and occipitofrontal circumference was 30 cm (< 3rd percentile). APGAR score was 7 at 5 min. She was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit due to respiratory distress and physical abnormalities. The newborn examination revealed multiple dysmorphic features including metopic synostosis, broad nasal bridge, short nose, low-set ears, cyanosis, sloping forehead, pectus excavatum, hypoplasia of distal phalange of the fifth finger of the right hand, polydactyly of fingers (six finger), telangiectatic nevus, upturned nares, depressed nasal bridge, upslanting palpebral fissures, microtia, hort neck, high forehead, widely spaced nipples, micrognathia, and high palate (Figure 1).




Figure 1: An image of the facial and physical features of the reported patient; metopic synostosis, broad and depressed nasal bridge, short nose, upturned nares, low-set ears, sloping forehead, pectus excavatum, hypoplasia of distal phalange of the fifth finger of the right hand and sixth finger in hands, upslanting palpebral fissures, short neck, high forehead, micrognathia.

The results of the complete blood count tests, biochemical laboratory studies, thyroid function tests and urine metabolic studies were normal. The cranial 3D-computerized tomography revealed metopic synostosis (Figure 2), the echocardiographic examination revealed TOF (including a right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, an overriding aorta, a malalignment ventricular septal defect, and right ventricular hypertrophy). In addition, the patient had boot-shaped appearance on the chest radiograph (Figure 3). Chromosome analysis demonstrated Mosaic trisomy 13 (47, XX +13) from peripheral blood leukocytes using GTG banding technique at 100 metaphase. The patient was transferred to the department of pediatric cardiac surgery on the sixth day of life. The patient is 2 months old and her general state remains well.



Figure 2: A section of the cranial 3D-computerized tomography revealed metopic synostosis.



Figure 3: A section of the chest radiograph; boot-shaped appearance and sixth finger in hands.

Discussion

Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13 syndrome) is seen at an incidence rate of 1/12.000-1/29.000 live births. It is, however, more common in spontaneous abortions than in live births4. Its characteristic findings are microophthalmia, and cleft lip and palate5. Cardinal findings are motor and mental retardation, microcephalus, holoprosencephaly, hypotelorism, and cardiovascular, genitourinary, and/or ocular malformations. The definitive diagnosis is established through chromosome analysis. Trisomy 13 may present with different type of gene variations such as classic trisomy 47, XX +13 (80%), translocation or structural changes (10%), mosaicism (5%) etc5. Phenotypically, the caryotypes of some cases with trisomy 13 symptoms are normal. Some of these cases may be Meckel syndrome; some, unrecognized trisomy 13/normal mosaic, and some may be the phenotypes of genetic or environmental origin. The examination of our patient revealed multiple dysmorphic features and in the caryotype analysis, classic trisomy 47, XX +13 was determined.

Advanced maternal age is associated with the occurrence of the syndrome since the advanced age of the mother (over 35 years of age) leads to nondisjunction of chromosomes6. The mother of our patient was 42 years old, and father, 45 years old. The congenital irregularities in patients with Patau syndrome are life-threatening and almost 50% of the cases die in the first month and 90%, within the first year of life. All the cases suffer motor and mental deficits. However, mosaics may improve in time7. Although our case had classical trisomy 13 syndrome, the control examination in the 2nd month of age showed no significant health problems. The most common cause of death is cardiopulmonary complications such as TOF. In three reviews of published cases with trisomy 13, the most common malformations were facial anomalies and congenital heart defects, and TOF and metopic synostosis are rare malformations, with incidence of TOF at 15 % 3,8-11. Our patient had facial anomalies, extremity anomalies, and TOF. Comparing of physical examination findings in the reported patients8-11 and our patient are presented in Table 1.

In conclusion, patients with trisomy 13 may have different type of gene variations and malformations; however, the most common type of gene variation is classic trisomy 47, XX +13, and the most common malformations are facial anomalies and congenital heart defects. In addition, TOF and and metopic synostosis may accompany trisomy 13.

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.

References

1. Patau K, Smith DW, Therman E, Inhorn SL, Wagner HP. Multiple congenital anomaly caused by an extra autosome. Lancet. 1960; 1: 790-793.
2. Brewer CM, Holloway SH, Stone DH, Carothers AD, FitzPatrick DR. Survival in trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 cases ascertained from population based registers. J Med Genet. 2002; 39: e54.
3. Unal S, Celik FC, Soy D, Ceylaner S, Ceylaner G. A boy with trisomy 21 presenting with a subtle clinical picture and metopic synostosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2009; 149A: 1608-1609.
4. Misanović V, Jonuzi F, Biscević E, Uzicanin S, Vegar S. The Patau syndrome. Med Arh. 2002; 56: 42-43.
5. Rios A, Furdon SA, Adams D, Clark DA. Recognizing the clinical features of Trisomy 13 syndrome. Adv Neonatal Care. 2004; 4: 332-343.
6. Goldstein H, Nielsen KG. Rates and survival of individuals with trisomy 13 and 18. Data from a 10-year period in Denmark.Clin Genet. 1988; 34: 366-372.
7. Fogu G, Maserati E, Cambosu F, Moro MA, Poddie F, Soro G, et al. Patau syndrome with long survival in a case of unusual mosaic trisomy 13. Eur J Med Genet. 2008; 51: 303-314.
8. Aypar E, Yildirim MS, Sert A, Ciftci I, Odabas D. A girl with metopic synostosis and trisomy 13 mosaicism: case report and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet A. 2011; 155A: 638-641.
9. Rosa RF, Rosa RC, Flores JA, Chazan DT, Dietrich C, de Barth MB, et al. Trisomy 21 (Patau syndrome) and craniosynostosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2011; 155A: 2018-2020.
10. Hsu HF, Hou JW. Variable expressivity in Patau syndrome is not all related to trisomy 13 mosaicism. Am J Med Genet A. 2007; 143A: 1739-1748.
11. Griffith CB, Vance GH, Weaver DD. Phenotypic variability in trisomy 13 mosaicism: two new patients and literature review. Am J Med Genet A. 2009; 149A: 1346-1358.

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References

1. Patau K, Smith DW, Therman E, Inhorn SL, Wagner HP. Multiple congenital anomaly caused by an extra autosome. Lancet. 1960; 1: 790-793.

2. Brewer CM, Holloway SH, Stone DH, Carothers AD, FitzPatrick DR. Survival in trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 cases ascertained from population based registers. J Med Genet. 2002; 39: e54.

3. Unal S, Celik FC, Soy D, Ceylaner S, Ceylaner G. A boy with trisomy 21 presenting with a subtle clinical picture and metopic synostosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2009; 149A: 1608-1609.

4. Misanović V, Jonuzi F, Biscević E, Uzicanin S, Vegar S. The Patau syndrome. Med Arh. 2002; 56: 42-43.

5. Rios A, Furdon SA, Adams D, Clark DA. Recognizing the clinical features of Trisomy 13 syndrome. Adv Neonatal Care. 2004; 4: 332-343.

6. Goldstein H, Nielsen KG. Rates and survival of individuals with trisomy 13 and 18. Data from a 10-year period in Denmark.Clin Genet. 1988; 34: 366-372.

7. Fogu G, Maserati E, Cambosu F, Moro MA, Poddie F, Soro G, et al. Patau syndrome with long survival in a case of unusual mosaic trisomy 13. Eur J Med Genet. 2008; 51: 303-314.

8. Aypar E, Yildirim MS, Sert A, Ciftci I, Odabas D. A girl with metopic synostosis and trisomy 13 mosaicism: case report and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet A. 2011; 155A: 638-641.

9. Rosa RF, Rosa RC, Flores JA, Chazan DT, Dietrich C, de Barth MB, et al. Trisomy 21 (Patau syndrome) and craniosynostosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2011; 155A: 2018-2020.

10. Hsu HF, Hou JW. Variable expressivity in Patau syndrome is not all related to trisomy 13 mosaicism. Am J Med Genet A. 2007; 143A: 1739-1748.

11. Griffith CB, Vance GH, Weaver DD. Phenotypic variability in trisomy 13 mosaicism: two new patients and literature review. Am J Med Genet A. 2009; 149A: 1346-1358.

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