Living donors not related genetically with the recipients

Hippokratia 1999, 3 (3):99-103

G Vergoulas

Abstract

The shortage of renal grafts continuous to be an international problem. This is due to the fact that the number of cadaveric origin grafts remains stable while there is an increase in the number of patients with renal failure waiting for renal transplantation. Nowadays there is an increasing interest, internationally, for renal transplants from living donors, genetically related or not with the recipient. Living donors who have no genetical relationship with the recipient can be divided to those with emotional bonds with the recipients (spouses, etc), those who are paid for the donation and those who are in the list of a National Programme for graft exchange.

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Substitution treatment of andropenia

Hippokratia 1999, 3 (3):104-115

D. Panidis, A. Kourtis

Abstract

The goals of hormonal treatment of andropenia depend upon the stage of sexual development in which gonadal failure occurs. Androgen replacement therapy is used to induce and maintain normal secondary sexual characteristics, sexual function, and behavior in pre-pubertal boys and men with either primary or secondary hypogonadism. Parenteral testosterone esters are the most effective, safe, practical, and inexpensive androgen preparations available for this purpose. They are the treatment of choice for androgen replacement therapy. In boys or men with secondary hypogonadism gonadotropin or GnRH therapy may be used instead of testosterone therapy to stimulate endogenous testosterone production. Because of their greater expense and complexity, however, these modalities are usually reserved for men with gonadotropic deficiency, who desire fertility and in whom spermatogenesis must be initiated and maintained.

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The role of interleukin-10 in the treatment of rheumatoid arthitis

Hippokratia 1999, 3 (3):116-122

A. Garyfallos

Abstract

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with antiinflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. IL-10 exerts its action through deactivation of the antigen-presenting capacity of the macrophages. It also promotes Th2 and inhibits Th 1 response of CD4+T cells; thus, IL-10 decreases the proinflammatory cytokine synthesis, like those of TNF-α and IL-Ιβ. In several animal models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as in collagen-induced arthritis, IL-10 decreased disease activity, and showed chondroprotective effects as well. In human RA, IL-10 seems to play a key inhibitory role in arthritic inflammation. However, when IL-10 was administered therapeutically in RA patients, it showed only a moderate antiinflammatory action..

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Obesity and cancer

Hippokratia 1999, 3 (3):123-126

D. Tsavdaridis, A. Diamantopoulos

Abstract

A positive correlation between obesity and development of certain types of malignant neoplasms has been found in a large number of epidemiological studies. Eating habits and obesity are directly connected with cancer mortality. An increased relative risk for development of breast cancer is present in women with a BMI > 28-30, particularly in those who are postmenopausal and have central type obesity. Endometrial cancer has been associated with the same factors. In both cases the higher risk is attributed to hormonal changes. Colon and kidney cancers appear in a higher incidence in the obese, a fact attributed to the higher levels of IGF I and II. There is a possible correlation between obesity and other types of cancer, like ovarian and gallbladder cancer. A reduction in body weight and the adoption of a healthier life style reduce the risk of development of cancer and the mortality rate of the disease.

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Geriatric polypathology

Hippokratia 1999, 3(3):127-132

G. Spatharakis

Abstract

This review is referred to Geriatric Polypathology, a special biological phenomenon, which is observed in old persons over the age of 65-70 year. This phenomenon deserves a specialized approach, estimation and therepeutic intervention. The appearance of geriatric polypathology may be retarded by the use of proper strategies for primary, secondary or tertiary preventive therapy.

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The role of ethical committee in the tertiary hospital

Hippokratia 1999, 3(3):133-140

N. Sykas, D. Gakis

Abstract

The role of ethical committee in the tertiary hospital, in Greece, it is described. Ethical committee exerts an advisory role to the investigators, assisting them in the design of the research. It is also checking protocols for possible violations of the Nuremberg code and the Declaration of Helsinki protecting the human rights. It is reporting then to the scientific committee of the hospital and if the protocol is accepted it is then examined by the council of the hospital that gives to the investigators the permission to start the research. Especially for drug, clinical trials it is necessary for the protocol to have also the acceptance from the National Pharmaceutical Organization before starting clinical application.

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