Ovarian neoplasms of the thecoma-fibroma group. ImmunohistochemicaI stain for inhibin, CD 99, Melan A, CD 117

Hippokratia 2002; 6 (1): 3-10

A Kostopoulou, S Angelidou, M Leontsini

Abstract

Ovarian neoplasms of the thecoma-fibroma group constitute an important part of sex cord-stromal tumors. They rarely occur in extraovarian sites. In recent years, sex cord-stromal neoplasms have been investigated by the use of several new immunohistochemical markers. The aim of the present study is to examine immunohistochemically ovarian tumors of the thecoma-fibroma group and the potential use of several markers for diagnostically problematic cases. Eighteen neoplasms of the thecoma-fibroma group from the archives of our laboratory were examined with immunohistochemical stains for inhibin a, CD 99, Melan A, COl17 (c-kit). Several tumors that are considered in the differential diagnosis were examined in comparison: leiomyomas, stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, fibromatoses. Immunohistochemical stain for inhibin a was positive in 67% of tumors of the thecomafibroma group. CD 99 stain was positive in 39%. Stain for CD 117 (c-kit) was negative in the above neoplasms, while it was positive in GISTs. Immunohistochemi­cal stain for Al03 was positive mainly in sclerosing stromal tumors. In conclusion, the immunohistochemical stain for inhibin a and the negative stain for C0117 may help in the differential diagnosis of problematic cases of the above group. Immunohistochemical stain for AI03 may help in the diagnosis of sclerosing stromal tumors.

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Hashimoto's thyroiditis with rare histologic findings

Hippokratia 2002; 6 (1): 11 - 15

J Venizelos, M Kita, M Joiti, A Anastasilakis, D Sioutopoulou, M Leontsini, A Avramidis

Abstract

Autoimmune thyroid disease consists of a spectrum of clinical and histological entities with diffuse toxic goiter at one end and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) at the other. The histologic hallmarks of HT include diffuse lymphocytic infiltration with or without germinal centers and oxyphilic metaplasia of follicular epithelial cells. We describe a case of a 34-year-old man with HT. Histological examination of the excised thyroid tissue showed diffuse infiltration by numerous plasma cells and a few lymphocytes. To our knowledge there has not been reported HT with these histological findings. 

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Alport Syndrome and Thin Glomerural Basement Membrane Nephropathy

Hippokratia 2002; 6 (1): 16-30

SP Zanos, GA Sakellariou

Abstract

Alport's syndrome (AS) is a hereditary renal disease and the gene responsible for some of its variants has been identified and is responsible for the synthesis of a portion of the ?5 chain of the type IV collagen. It is also normally present in the membranes of the lens, eye and organ of Corti in the ear, suggesting that the absence could also explain the extrarenal manifestations of the disease. Two modes of inheritance have been described: X-linked dominant and, less commonly autosomal recessive. Afflicted male subjects have a less favorable prognosis than do female subjects. Alport's syndrome is associated with hematuria, proteinuria, or progressive renal failure. Other extra-renal abnormalities are sensorineural hearing loss, eye changes and platelet dysfunction. The diagnosis of Alport's syndrome can be made from renal biopsy with specific findings. Alport's syndrome can usually be easily differentiated from benign form of familiar hematuria or thin basement membrane syndrome, which is an autosomal dominant disease with excellent prognosis.

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Approaching tuberculosis

Hippokratia 2002; 6 (1): 31 - 44

G Ilonidis

Abstract

The epidemiologic elevation of tuberculosis begins at the 16th century and reaches the 18th century, while the decrease continues until today and it is predicted to cover also the 22nd century in USA and Europe. Today tuberculosis has become the most important communicable disease in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that tuberculosis has infected the one-third of the world population, while in developing countries the infection of tuberculosis reaches the two-thirds of the world population. in 1996, 8 million new cases of tuberculosis were marked with 3 million deaths per year since 1990.Clinical features, radiology, sputum examination, control of sensitivity in anti-tuberculosis drugs and speeific tuberculosis skin reaetion accomplish the research and diagnosis of tuberculosis. The suspension of contamination and infection is achieved at a high percentage by chemoprophylaxis and BCG vaccination. The control and prevention of the infection of tuberculosis tends to be a severe problem.The aims of controlling and preventing tuberculosis include the detection and treatment of the cases and the suspension of the development of the infection. Tuberculosis should be continuously kept under control on a national level in different community groups (age, sex and ethnic origin) in order to avoid the appearance of more resistant cases. In that way is ensured that appropriate progress is being made and more suitable control measures are being redirected.

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